- What is the ISNAD Citation Style?
The ISNAD is a Turkey-based academic writing and referencing style developed to be used in studies done in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences. “Citation” is one of the essentiality of the scientific nature of knowledge as well as a requirement of respect for intellectual property and copyrights. It is a crime of publication ethics when the original source of the text is not cited (plagiarism). Therefore, the sources of a scientific study must be cited correctly and completely with its bibliographic components so that other researchers can easily access to them.
The following are the most commonly used citation styles:
|MLA||Language and Literature|
|ISNAD||Humanities and Social Sciences|
These styles have emerged due to the specific requirements of the relevant disciplines. As for the ISNAD citation style, as a Turkey-based citation style, it has been developed to meet the reference requirements in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences such as Anthropology, Archeology and Art History, Geography, Language and Literature, Education, Philosophy, Folklore, Law, Economics and Administrative Sciences, Theology, Psychology, Arts, Social Work, Sociology and History.
The ISNAD citation style contains all the rules necessary to know and apply in academic writings such as how to determine the title of an academic work, what information should be included in its abstract, how to select the keywords, how the outlining format should be, how to create the tables and figures, how to write the names of authors and the titles of studies carried out in Arabic, Persian or English, how to indicate dates and centuries, what should be considered in the context of publication ethics, how to quote directly or indirectly from the source work, how to cite the references in the text or footnotes and how to create the bibliography.
- What Does “ISNAD” Mean?
The word isnad is derived from the root “sanad” in Arabic, meaning “to rely on, to lean, to put one’s trust in” in dictionary. Therefore, it means “to ground, to base upon, to take the word back to its owner, to indicate the way through which a word or a narration has been arrived, or to take it back to its origin.” It is used to question and indicate the source of the word as in the example of “what is the origin of your word? In this sense, the word “isnad” was chosen as a name for the citation style by the majority (70.4%) of editors who work for the journals publishing in the field of Theology in Turkey.
- When was the ISNAD Citation Style Developed?
The ISNAD citation style was developed first as “Ilahiyat Citation Style” between 2017-2018 and its first version was published on 12/03/2018 in printed form and online and was put into service free of cost. This system, upon gaining interest in the journals belong to the field of Theology and also upon being demanded in other fields in Turkey and Turkic Republics, was put into service, updated to be used in all of social sciences in September 2018 as the second version of the ISNAD. From now on, the ISNAD can be used in all the fields Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Who has Discovered the ISNAD Citation Style?
The ISNAD citation style has been created by Dr. Abdullah Demir, as a part of RGD-015 numbered Project called “The National Ilahiyât Citation Index Project” which is supported by the administration of Sivas Cumhuriyet University within the scope of Sivas Cumhuriyet University Religious Sciences Implementation and Research Center (DIMER). This citation style has been developed by considering the views, suggestions and evaluations of the editors and of academicians who are specialists in the academic publications and peer-reviewed journals. Among the popular citation styles, APA has been upgraded by American Psychology Association, and Chicago by the Modern Languages Association and both have been launched for marketing.
- Why is the ISNAD Citation Style Important?
The ISNAD is a system that was developed within Turkey and was launched in 12/03/2018. It is a system that has been, within a short period of time, adopted by peer-reviewed academic journals and book publications as well as by the faculty deans (in writing graduation thesis) and the Administration of the Institutes of Social Sciences (in writing Master and Ph.D. theses). It is also a system that has been integrated as one of the forms of citation in the index and journal platforms such as Web of Science / Clarivate Analytics, TUBITAK TR Index and TUBITAK Dergi Park. In this citation style, the templates are created in the similar fashion as those of the library and citation management programs like Zotero, Mendeley and EndNote, which have been used worldwide. It is the only system which have been provided free of charge for the first time and is the only local and national citation style. Therefore, from this point of view, it is very important. If Turkish is targeted to become a scientific language, development of a scientific citation style is mandatory to achieve this target. The ISNAD citation style, that has been developed in Turkish language and is free to be used, is more convenient and easier to be learnt and used by the middle school and university students, as compared to the other citation styles, that are English in origin and are unaffordable. The scientists in Turkish speaking countries will help strengthen Turkish as a scientific language by preparing their scientific researches like symposium papers, articles and books according to the ISNAD citation style.
- What is the Goal of the ISNAD Citation Style?
By the ISNAD citation style, it is targeted to use a common citation style in Turkey and Turkic Republics in the publications prepared in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences such as; Anthropology, Archeology, Geography, Language and Literature, Philosophy, ethnology, Law, Economic and Administrative Sciences, Theology, Music, Psychology, Art History, Social Services, Sociology and History. The use of the ISNAD citation style will help detect the citation and the degree of influence by standardizing the citation style in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences in Turkish speaking countries and will make the scientific communication easier in Turkish speaking World.
- Who can use the ISNAD?
The ISNAD citation style has been initiated for students, academicians, writers who research and write in the Humanities and Social Sciences and for those institutions and organizations publishing in the same field. Many journals who publish in the field of Social Sciences have started using The ISNAD citation style. The number of universities who prefer using The ISNAD citation style in BA graduation thesis, MA and Ph.D thesis is increasing. Furthermore, institutions and organizations organizing national and international symposiums and conferences have started asking their participants to prepare their papers according to the ISNAD citation style. This system, that has been initiated free of cost, having user-friendly interface and citation software add-ons, is gaining acceptance and is being adopted rapidly. Students, writers, researchers and academicians can carry out their “reference and citation” processes easily, fast and free of mistake with the help of the ISNAD’s citation management software add-ons like EndNote, Zotero and Mendeley. The use of the ISNAD citation style continues to increase in Turkey and Turkic Republics.
- What is the main idea of the ISNAD Citation Style?
In the ISNAD citation style, the information about the cited source, following the general rule of its use in the relevant field of social science, can be given as follows: in the text as “Writer – Date” information (same as APA) or in the footnote as “Writer –Title” information (same as that in Chicago, MLA and Turabian style). But according to the ISNAD citation style, the title information can be written in the footnote, in a single way divided by a dot. For example, in an article written in the field of psychology, the citation can be shown within the paragraph in accordance to the ISNAD citation style as “Topaloğlu (2014, 11). In articles written in the fields of Anthropology, Archeology, Geography, Language and Literature, Philosophy, Folklore, Law, Economic and Administrative Sciences, Theology, Music, Psychology, History of Art, Social Services, Sociology and History, the work benefited from can be cited in the footnote as “Abdullah Demir, Ebu İshak es-Saffar’s Kelam Yöntemi (Ankara: İSAM Publications, 2018), 44”. On the other hand, in researches where The ISNAD In-Text Citation or The ISNAD Footnote Citation systems are preferred, “References” have to be given only in the form as “Surname, Name. Title of the Work. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year”. This aspect of the ISNAD, will facilitate the writer. It will also facilitate the institutions and organizations doing bibliometric calculations such as identification of citation and level of impact by transferring the sources in the published materials to the databases. The databases which then, can provide meaningful and clear data that can be broken into pieces by computer softwares.
- Why was the ISNAD needed?
The main target is to make Turkish a scientific language and works are being carried out for this purpose. In achieving this goal, a scientific writing and citation style, prepared in Turkish, was required. The ISNAD citation style, that has been developed in Turkish language and is free of cost, is more convenient and easier to be learnt and used by Secondary Education and University students as well as researchers and writers as compared to the other citation styles that are English in origin. In our country, although many state institutions and universities have been publishing books for years, there has been no common academic writing and citation style. Furthermore, it can be noticed that different citation styles have been used in the writings published in the same institution. Many a time, the forms of citation do not fit even the international standards. The common mistake is that they only change ‘Surname, Name’ and leave the rest information as it is after copy-pasting the first footnote into the references. Whereas, in the international citation styles, as can be seen below, the information about the work are generally separated by a “comma” in footnotes, and by “dot” in the references.
In the references, the separation of the title and its information by a “dot” is necessary for citation index soft-wares for analyzing and interpreting the title and its information in order to make them meaningful. Whereas the mistake mentioned above can also be seen even in the writings published by state institutions. Widespread use of the ISNAD citation style, can reduce such kind of mistakes in citations. Furthermore, the use of the ISNAD citation style by academicians in writing their articles, books, projects and similar scientific studies in Turkish speaking countries can help strengthen Turkish as a common scientific language.
In the field of Social Sciences, widely used citation styles like APA, Chicago and MLA, are unfortunately not being used in Turkish academic studies, as they should be used in English. For example, there are 1949 journals registered in TUBITAK Dergipark System. When the journals using Chicago System are examined, it can be seen that in many of them the Chicago System has not been used properly. Among 694 Social Scientific Journals, the number of journals accepted into TUBITAK TR Index is 372. The first condition for journals to be accepted into TR Index or international indexes is that they should use the citation style they have enounced properly, in all their editions. However, this condition has not been fulfilled by the journals published in Turkish. Spread of the ISNAD citation style will make the job easier for researchers and writers as well as will help journals to get acceptance into the indexes. Many Social Sciences journals among A class international indexes have already started using the ISNAD since September 2018.
The citation and reference systems like APA, MLA and Chicago that were supposed to be used in studies carried out in English have not been able to be taught to students at secondary, undergraduate and postgraduate educational levels because of their paid printed and online versions and also because of the weak English language skills of students. For example, starting from September 2018, the price of APA user guide is 40 TL and yearly online individual membership of Chicago citation style is 39 Dollars and printed copy of it is 49 Dollars.
The ISNAD citation style has been created in Turkey in Turkish language. The Online as well as the full text access to the ISNAD is free of cost. Therefore, students and academicians from Turkey and Turkic Republics can easily learn and have unlimited access to the ISNAD. Furthermore, template extensions compatible to Zotero, Mendeley and Endnote citation management softwares have been prepared and introduced to be used for free.
Some citation expressions in citation styles that are prepared for studies carried out in English do not fit the Turkish writing and punctuation rules. For example, in Chicago style, while citing a “Book Section”, the preposition “in” is used before the title name. However, reference to the title name is not possible by writing “içinde (in)” before it in Turkish.
John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.
John Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” içinde Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.
Another example is as follows: in the references in Chicago style, first, a full stop is used at the end of the article and title names and then inverted commas are used, whereas full stop is used after the inverted commas in Turkish.
Kelly, John. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Mor- al Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Citation systems like APA, MLA and Chicago are unable to be used properly in studies other than those carried out in English. Because expressions like “s.n. (publisher is unknown)”, “s.l. (Publishing place is unknown)”, “et. al. (and others)”, “Id (same author)” “p. (page)”, “trans. / Translated by”, “no. (issue)”, “Review of”, “reviewed by”, and “PhD diss” and “master thesis” have to be translated into Turkish and other languages and their correspondent abbreviations are needed to be created. Due to no agreement in translation, we can encounter different types of translations for the same abbreviations. However, in the ISNAD citation style the abbreviations have already been determined in Turkish and English in order have common writing rules. The ISNAD has also been translated into Arabic, German, French and Turkic languages and the counterparts of all the abbreviations in these languages have been defined in order to standardize the use of the ISNAD.
Template add-ons have been created for citation management softwares like Endnote, Zotero and Mendeley so that they can easily be used in English writings in citation styles like APA, MLA and Chicago. The researchers who have installed on their computers the softwares like Endnote, Zotero and Mendeley, have been freed from preparing footnotes and references one by one. Template plugins for these softwares have been created to be used in English writings. However, it’s not possible for users speaking Turkish or other languages who use Endnote and Zotero to use APA or Chicago citation management software plugins in the same way. For expressions and markers in software templates as shown below continue to appear in English.
As it can be seen above, in APA and Chicago templates, there is an expression “Ph.D. dissertation”, whereas this expression in Turkish references is used as “Doktora tezi” (Ph.D. thesis) or “Yayınlanmamış Doktora tezi” (unpublished Ph.D. thesis). The template plugins that are belong to the ISNAD citation style are, however, compatible to English as well as Turkish and therefore more suitable for Turkish users. Adaptation of the ISNAD to other languages is also ongoing.
Academic writing systems already available in English like APA, MLA and Chicago, as most people think, do not include only footnote and bibliography rules. These citation styles include also the rules and regulations that are required while writing an academic essay such as how the headline format of an academic writing should be, how to do an indirect and a direct quotation and how to create tables and figures. However, this aspect is not known enough. Their printed copies and online access to their full texts being for a certain fee and being prepared in English may be effective in this unawareness. In the same way, while preparing an academic essay, the ISNAD citation style includes all the rules for accomplishing different tasks in an academic writing such as how to give a title, what information is required in the abstract section, how to choose effective keywords for an article, how will be the headings, how to create tables and figures, how to write the names of works written in Arabic, Persian, English and other languages and their authors, in which format the dates and centuries should be indicated, what to pay attention about the publication ethics statement, how to cite sources directly and indirectly, how to write the references in-text and in the footnotes and how to generate a bibliography. Widespread use of the ISNAD citation style will contribute to writing and citation unity and will ease the job of writers in academic writings, particularly in social sciences. Furthermore, all the details that need to be observed and followed when writing an academic writing can easily be reached and learnt by readers, students and researchers. Currently, publishers, publishing boards, advisory boards and editors have to put a lot of effort in correcting writing and citation mistakes of students and writers as these details of academic writing haven’t yet been taught widely under an academic writing system like the ISNAD citation style. Furthermore, lack of a Turkish originated citation style and software template plugins hinders the widespread use of citation styles in academic writings. Unfortunately, institutes and boards, publishing hundreds of writings every year, don’t have citation management software plugins prepared within framework of the “Writing and Citation Rules” they follow like EndNote, Zotero and Mendeley. The ISNAD citation style, on the other hand, is easily reachable both online and in printed and also facilitates writers with its computer software plugins.
In Turkey and Turkic Republics, thousands of writings are published in the fields of social sciences and humanities every year, containing millions of citations. Accurate and complete identifying and biometrical analysis of these references is very important. However, because of no common reference and citation style in the fields of social sciences and humanities in Turkey and Turkish Republics, citations are unable to be identified correctly and cannot be recorded. The widespread use of the ISNAD citation style will help in writing the titles of works and references in a certain order, providing a clear data to the indexes that will perform a bibliometric analysis such as “TR Index” and “Theology Citation Index”.
In citation styles like APA and MLA, writer’s name is abbreviated (for example: Yeşilyurt, T.), whereas in ISNAD citation style writer’s name and surname are written out in full without abbreviation (for example: Yeşilyurt, Temel). The ISNAD’s choice is very advantageous in a way that it helps to see the connection between the writer and his work and avoids mix-ups among other names. Otherwise, readers will not be able to grip quickly the writer’s exact name from a reference like “Yeşilyurt, T.” as there are many possibilities (for example, Tacettin, Taha, Talip, Tarık, Tayyip, Temel, Tuncay etc.)
In academic writing systems like APA, MLA and Chicago, in the presence of two or more than two authors, “and” or “&” is used between their names. However, these conjunctions are not used in Turkish and other languages. The ISNAD citation style, that has been prepared in Turkish, separates the names of authors with a “hyphen ( – )”. Therefore, the ISNAD has the flexibility to be used in Turkish, in the first place, and in any other language without translation.
In studies carried out in Social Sciences, while citing critical editions, the abbreviation “thk.” is used before the name of the muhaqqiq (the editor). (Example: Ebû İshâk es-Saffar, Telhîsü’l-edille, thk. Angelika Brodersen). In academic citation styles like APA, MLA and Chicago, “Edited by” or “ed.” is used instead of “tahkik”. (Example: Ebû İshâk es-Saffar, Telhîsü’l-edille, ed. Angelika Brodersen). However, a critical edition work is different than an editorial publication and to show the difference, the abbreviation “thk” is needed. Therefore, in the ISNAD citation style, the abbreviation “thk.” is preferred while citing the critical editions.
In Chicago citation style, while citing master and PhD theses, the thesis name is written in inverted commas. Turkish writers, on the contrary, are used to write the thesis names in italic form without using inverted commas. Considering the user preferences thereupon, it is preferred to write the thesis names in italic form in the ISNAD citation style.
Chicago Tez Atıf Örneği: Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.
İSNAD Tez Atıf Örneği: Cynthia Lillian Rutz, King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues (Doktora tezi, Chicago Üniversitesi, 2013), 99–100.
When writing the titles of articles and books in APA style in bibliography, only the first word of the titles starts with capital letter; other words are written in lowercase. Starting words of titles with lowercase letters is neither suitable for Turkish nor among usage habits of Turkish researchers. Therefore, in the ISNAD citation style, taking into consideration the Turkish language case and end punctuation rules and Turkish users' usage habits, it is preferred to start all the words in the titles of articles and books with capital letters.
APA Kaynakça Yazım Örneği: Yılmaz, O.K. (2018). İSAM tahkikli neşir kılavuzu. Ankara: İSAM yayınları.
İSNAD Kaynakça Yazım Örneği: Yılmaz, Okan Kadir. İSAM Tahkikli Neşir Kılavuzu. Ankara: İSAM yayınları, 2018.
There is no difference in citing the “hadith” collections and other books in citation styles like APA, MLA and Chicago. However, in Islamic studies, basic books of “hadith” like those that belong to Bukhâri, Abû Davûd, Ibn Mâca, Tirmizî, Nasâî and Dârimî are cited in the following style: Writer’s name, “Title of Chapter”, unit number. As for Muslim’s Sahîh and Imam Mâlik’s Muwatta, they are cited in the following style: Title of Book, number of hadith. In the ISNAD citation style, the general practice of specialists working in this field is preferred as the rule for citing “hadith” collections.
As for the Qur’anic verses, they are cited as, for example, “the Qur’an 5: 3-4” in APA citation style. However, researchers working in this field cite the Quranic verses by writing the name of the Chapter and the number of the Chapter and the verse. In the ISNAD citation style, the practice of the experts on the field is adopted: “The name of the Chapter the number of the Chapter/ the number of the verse” (Example: Al-Baqara 2/14).
The way of citation followed by publication houses, publishing books and journals or encyclopedias in the field of Social Sciences in Turkey is not compatible with the international citation styles, because international citation styles like APA, Turabian, Vancour, Chicago and MLA, as can be seen below, use a system that divides the components of a citation by dots in the bibliography. But the publishers who publish in the field of Social Sciences prefer such formats that divide the components by comma in bibliography in the same way as it is the footnotes. However, these citing formats do not have any international equivalency. Usage of dot in the bibliography helps index and database softwares in analyzing, scanning and searching the bibliographic information of the works correctly. With the help of this method, up to the first dot the writer’s name, up to the second dot the title of the work and up to the final dot the publication information all is transformed into a meaningful data through scanning computer softwares. In creating a bibliography, if the components of a citation are not divided by a dot, the database and index softwares are unable to scan and transform them into a meaningful data. In this case, an article getting tens of citations is counted as if it hasn’t been cited at all. Therefore, it can rightly be said that thousands of citations cannot be identified correctly in case of not following an international recognized citation style in Turkey based journals.
The followings are bibliography examples that do not have any international equivalency:
Özdeş, Talip, Maturidi’nin Tefsir Anlayışı, Istanbul: Insan Publication, 2003.
Özdeş, Talip, Maturidi’nin Tefsir Anlayışı. Insan Publication, Istanbul 2003.
Özdeş, Talip, Maturidi’nin Tefsir Anlayışı. Insan Publication, Istanbul, 2003.
Özdeş, Talip, Maturidi’nin Tefsir Anlayışı, (Insan Pub., Istanbul 2003).
ÖZDEŞ, Talip. Maturidi’nin Tefsir Anlayışı. (Insan Publication, Istanbul 2003).
Özdeş Talip, Maturidi’nin Tefsir Anlayışı, (Istanbul:Insan Publication, 2003).
Every citation given above has been taken from an academic journal. As it can be seen, these examples, are the broken use of Chicago style. The correct analysis of Citations to the writers’ studies and the impact factors of journals depends upon the use of a citation style that is compatible to the international standards. ICS has been formulated to fulfill such requirements of the journals.
The citation styles are generally based upon two approaches. One of them is the “Author-Date” based in-text referencing style like APA in which citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication. The other one is the “Author-Title” based footnote referencing style like Chicago, MLA and Turabian in which citations are placed in footnotes using the author’s name and surname (only surname in subsequent references) and title of his/her work. Citation and bibliography formatting are different in these systems. It is difficult for researchers to learn and use the both systems. Furthermore, since bibliography is created in different styles in both systems, the computer softwares that detect citations have to be designed according to the both systems. In the ISNAD citation style, the elements of the cited source can be formatted both in in-text style based on “Author-Date” information as well as in the footnotes based on “Author-Title” information in accordance with the recognized usage of respective field in Social Sciences. However, the components of references in bibliography, according to the ISNAD, can only be formatted in the standard way of dividing them by a dot. Although the both forms of citation (in-text and in footnote) are possible, but the creation of bibliography being in a single format is one of the strong and original aspects of the ISNAD citation style. For instance, according to the ISNAD, a cited source in an article written in the field of psychology can be formatted in in-text style as “Topaloğlu (2014, 11-15)”. Also a cited source in articles written in the fields of theology, history or other fields of Social Sciences can be formatted in footnotes as “Abdullah Demir, Ebû İshak es-Saffar’ın Kelâm Yöntemi (Ankara: ISAM Publication, 2018), 44”. All the same, the bibliography, whether the ISNAD In-Text Style or the ISNAD In-Footnote Style be used, has to be created in a single form: “Surname, Name. Title of Work. Publishing Place: Publisher, Date.” With the help of this original aspect of the ISNAD, indexes like TR Index and Theology Citation Index can get clear, analyzable and machine-readable bibliographical data.
The citation style to be followed in an academic writing is not determined by its writer, instead it’s determined by the publisher who accepts the work for publishing like an institute, a university or a foundation. This pushes the writer into a difficult condition. It is possible that the publisher, institute or university migh ask the writers to prepare their work in a commonly followed citation style, or to follow any particular style having no international recognition. With this, the writer is confronted with changing the footnotes and bibliography from the very beginning. Preferring the ISNAD in all the sub-branches of the Humanities and Social Sciences, will remove such difficulties that researchers might have to face. A researcher once has formatted his work in accordance with the ISNAD citation style, can send his work to any journal or publishing house that recognizes the ISNAD in its publications. In this respect, the usage of the ISNAD by publishers and boards in Turkey and Turkic Republics is of capital importance.
10. How to access the ISNAD citation style?
The ISNAD citation style has been published by Sivas Cumhuriyet University and is free to be used by researchers. The ISNAD citation style can also be downloaded in e-book format from its website. In the meantime, The ISNAD-Online, having a user-friendly interface, can be used on smartphones and computers.
11. In what languages can the ISNAD citation style be used?
The first goal is to put the ISNAD citation style into service in Turkey and Turkic Republics. Besides, translations into English, German, French and Arabic languages are going on in order to make it widely adopted internationally.
12. Can the ISNAD citation style be used out of Turkey?
The ISNAD citation style has been developed to be followed by journals publishing in the field of theology, being in the first place, and in publications in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences in Turkey and Turkic Republics in order to have a common citation style. The ISNAD has already begun to be used in the journals being published in Kirgizstan and Kazakhstan. The use of the ISNAD in Turkish speaking countries is the main target. The use of a common citation style in Turkey and Turkic Republics will help in saving data and citation, and therefore pave the way for easy bibliometric calculations like impact factor and citation rate. Unfortunately, there is no a database and index service that can record and put to use the scientific data produced in Tukey and Turkic Republics. The spread of the ISNAD citation style in Turkic Republics will set up a common citation language and will also help computer softwares and databases in providing a clear and healthy data. After this stage, it will be more possible to develop an index that can record scientific data produced in Turkey and Turkic Republics.
13. Has software integration of the ISNAD citation style been done?
Template plugins in the ISNAD citation style, compatible to library and reference management softwares like Zotero, Mendeley and EndNote, have been prepared and put into service free of cost in the ISNAD website. Furthermore, the ISNAD has been accepted and systematically integrated as a citation style by Web of Science/Clarivate Analytics, Tübitak TR Index and Tübitak DergiPark and related index and journal platforms.