1.1. Violations of Publication Ethics

“Violation of publication ethics is a global problem which includes duplicate submission, multiple submissions, plagiarism, gift authorship, fake affiliation, ghost authorship, pressured authorship, salami publication and fraud (fabrication and falsification) but excludes the honest errors committed by the authors.”[1]

Data fabrication and falsification: “Data fabrication means the researcher did not actually do the study but made up data. Data falsification means the researcher did the experiment, but then changed some of the data. Both of these practices make people distrust scientists. If the public is mistrustful of science, then it will be less willing to provide funding support”.[2]

Plagiarism: “In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.”[3]

“Students plagiarise in four main ways;

1. Stealing material from another source and passing it off as their own, e.g.

(a) buying a paper from a research service, essay bank or term paper mill (either pre-written or specially written),

(b) copying a whole paper from a source text without proper acknowledgement,

(c) submitting another student’s work, with or without that student’s knowledge (e.g. by copying a computer disk).

2. Submitting a paper written by someone else (e.g. a peer or relative) and passing it off as their own.

3. Copying sections of material from one or more source texts, supplying proper documentation (including the full reference) but leaving out quotation marks, thus giving the impression that the material has been paraphrased rather than directly quoted.

4. Paraphrasing material from one or more source texts without supplying appropriate documentation”.[4]

Multiple submissions of a paper: “It is unethical to submit the same manuscript to more than one journal at the same time. This is also a waste of time for editors and peer reviewers and can give rise to prejudices at the reputation of journals if published in more than one”.[5]

Redundant publications (or ‘salami’ publications): “This means publishing many very similar manuscripts based on the same experiment. It can make readers less likely to pay attention to your manuscripts”.[6]

Improper author contribution or attribution: “All listed authors must have made a significant scientific contribution to the research in the manuscript and approved all its claims. Don’t forget to list everyone who made a significant scientific contribution”.[7]

  1. Mueen Ahmed vd., “Violation of publication ethics in manuscripts”, 94.
  2. Springer (Springer Nature), “Publication ethics” (9 May 2020).
  3. The Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA), “Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices” (30 December 2019).
  4. Chris Park, “In Other (People’s) Words: Plagiarism by university students-literature and lessons”, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 28/5 (2003), 475.
  5. Nature, “Publication ethics”.
  6. Nature, “Publication ethics”.
  7. Nature, “Publication ethics”.


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